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One Person Company (OPC)

 One Person Company

To understand one person company definition, we first need to get into the identity it creates. A registration provides corporate status and many benefits to the members and directors. In the case of a Private company, at least two members are required which is not the same in the case of OPC. To eliminate this drawback and allow a single person to reap the advantages of One Person Company, this sort of a company structure is introduced through the Companies Act, 2013. One Person Company registration is simplified with online filing and process.

One Person Company feature is such that it has only one shareholder who owns 100% stake of the company. To maintain the character of perpetuity, the appointment of the nominee is compulsory, who will take place of the owner in case of death or his inability. One person company is a type of Private Limited Company.

Benefits of One Person Company

Separate Legal Existence

A One Person Company would obtain the status of a separate legal entity. Such OPC registration ensures that the entity is separate from the owner, unlike a proprietorship firm. OPC can own the assets in its own name and enter into a contract with the parties.

Separation of Management and Ownership

Even if the OPC is owned by sole personnel, the owner may appoint a director owing up to the responsibility to operate and run a company. The operational duties are assigned to the director(s) whereas the member would be able to fetch profits channeling efforts towards other businesses.

Limited Liability of Owners

One of the benefits of registering OPC lies in the separate legal entity of the company where the liability and obligations are not charged over the personal assets of the sole member. The liability of a member is limited to the unpaid amount of the capital subscribed by the member.

Lower Compliance Requirements

A Single Person Company is benefited with an exemption to many compliances unlike a private company. Compliances like holding General and Board Meeting, etc. are not applicable to OPC.

OPC Registration Process Duration

5 Business Days

Firstly, the OPC director should petition or apply for the DSC otherwise known as Digital Signature Certificate, which is mandatory to file for the company registration records. For this to come through, one only needs to submit a few scanned documents; after which our agents will file the form by filling it and put it online for submission.

7 Business Days

Once the application for the DSC is done, our agents will ask you to choose a name for your business and send us the relevant scanned documents for the same. The sent documents will be used to file for the SPICe i.e. INC-32 and the MoA is otherwise known as the Memorandum of Association and the AoA also known as the Articles of Association. Finally, at the end of this process, the Certificate of Incorporation will be processed and approved.

2 Business Days

All companies need a registered PAN or Permanent Account Number and TAN or Tax Account Number. The application will be filed online by our representatives, however, you will be asked to courier the hard copies of the relevant and required documents yourself. Post the processing, the TAN and PAN will be dispatched to you to your registered office address only within 21 business days.

Mandatory Documents Necessary for OPC Registration

To Be Given By One Person Company Director

  • Scanned transcript of Passport (Foreign Nationals & NRIs) or PAN Card
  • Scanned transcript of Passport, Voter’s ID or Driver’s License
  • Scanned transcript of Current Bank Account Statement/Phone or Mobile Invoice/Electricity or Gas Invoice
  • Scanned passport-sized photo
  • Specimen autograph or impression (blank document with autograph)

Note: The OPC director as a mandate should self-attest the first three documents. If an NRI or a foreign national, all the document sheets should be notarized without fail (if at present in India or a non-Commonwealth nation) or apostilled (that is, living in a Commonwealth country).

Documents Necessary For The Registered Office

  • Scanned transcript of Current Bank Account Statement/Phone or Mobile Invoice/Gas or Electricity Invoice)
  • Scanned transcript of Rental Agreement Written in the English language
  • Scanned transcript of N-O or No-objection Certificate from the concerned property landowner
  • Scanned transcript of Property or Sale Deed printed in English (if the property is owned)

Nominee in One Person Company

The rules for incorporation of one person company requires that the sole member of a One Person Company should include the name of a nominee in the Companies MOA, who will undertake the entity after the expiry or incapacity of the former. Moreover, the document must contain the written consent of the nominee, which must also be filed with the Registrar during incorporation along with the MOA and AOA.

Withdrawal of Consent

The nominee is entitled to withdraw his/her consent, in which case the sole member is required to nominate another member as a legal heir within 15 days of the notice of withdrawal. The nomination of new personnel must be intimated to the Company through a written consent in Form INC-3. The Company, in turn, is required to file the notice of withdrawal of consent along with the intimation of the new nominee with the Registrar in Form INC 4.

Change of Nominee

The sole member of a ‘One Person Company’ is empowered to change the nominee of the Company for any reason whatsoever, by providing notice in writing to the Company. Again, the new nominee must consent to the nomination in Form INC 3, and the Company must file the notice of change and consent of the nominee with the Registrar along with the applicable fee, within 30 days of receiving the intimation of change.

Nominee Appointment

If a nominee becomes in-charge of the one person company due to the cessation of the original member’s term owing to the death or incapacity of the latter, the new member must appoint a nominee as a replacement.

Penalty

If a One Person Company or an officer of such Company is not compliant with the specified regulations, the entity or the officer will incur penalties which could be as high as Rs 10,000. Further, the penalty will be increased by a fine of Rs 1,000 for each day of default.

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